## Microsoft Excel 2003 Functions and Formulas

### Trigonometric Functions

Summary: Use Excel to perform sine, cosine, tangent, and other trigonometric functions.

Microsoft Excel 2003 has many built-in trigonometric functions:

=sin(ANGLE)

Returns the sine of ANGLE

=cos(ANGLE)

Returns to cosine of ANGLE

=tan(ANGLE)

Returns the tangent of ANGLE

By default, the angle is measured in radians; to convert an angle measurement from degrees to radians, use the =radians(ANGLE) function.
Excel also has the hyperbolic trigonometric functions:

=sinh(ANGLE)

Hyperbolic sine of ANGLE

=cosh(ANGLE)

Hyperbolic cosine of ANGLE

=tanh(ANGLE)

Hyperbolic tangent of ANGLE

Excel does not include the secant, cosecant, or cotangent functions. However, these can be figured by using the basic trigonometric functions.

If you have the result of a trigonometric function and want to find the angle (in radians) that you would need to get that result, use the inverse functions:

=asin(SINE)

Inverse sine of SINE

=acos(COSINE)

Inverse cosine of COSINE

=atan(TANGENT)

Inverse tangent of TANGENT

=asin(HYPERBOLICSINE)

Inverse hyperbolic sine of HYPERBOLICSINE

=acosh(HYPERBOLICCOSINE)

Inverse hyperbolic cosine of HYPERBOLICCOSINE

=ATANH(HYPERBOLICTANGENT)

Inverse hyperbolic tangent of HYPERBOLICTANGENT

To obtain the angle in degrees, enclose the above functions in the =degree() function,

For example:

=degree(asin(SINE))

Returns the angle, in degrees, of the inverse sine of SINE

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